Abstract: The study focuses on the major perceptions of demographic security in Poland and Russia, regarded as an aspect of both social and state security. Demographics as a political topic has been increasingly more often exploited as a key theme in official narratives and practical policies. The similarities in the demographic dynamics in both countries, as well as conditional failures of demographic policies, may not necessarily result from evident mistakes, but are probably a result of a complex set of social factors, including the regularities of demographic development in the past. It is quite clear, however, that the Polish political narratives and declared set of state objectives concentrate rather on the social sphere, whereas the Russian rhetoric and policy are clearly more state oriented.
Key words: Russia, Poland, security, demography, demographics