BTiP 2022, nr 2 – Artykuł 4

Hydrogen use in Poland in the light of EU policy to move away from coal: the concepts of hydrogen valleys and smart and sustainable cities

Anna Bałamut | Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski Krakow University
ORCID 0000-0001-7300-7367

„Bezpieczeństwo. Teoria i Praktyka”, 2/2022, s. 61-73
DOI 10.48269/2451-0718-btip-2022-2-004
PDF: English

Abstract: Hydrogen can be used in several ways, including as a raw material, fuel or as an energy carrier. Therefore, hydrogen becomes an object of interest not only to companies, but also to individual governments. The European Union (EU) promotes low-emission solutions, which entails giving up fossil fuels and adapting the energy mix to renewable energy. In addition, the war in Ukraine is reshaping relations on the energy market in Europe and beyond. The well-known concept of diversification takes on a new meaning, it is combined with efficiency and competitiveness in the event of a change in the directions and sources of energy. It should be emphasized that no CO 2 emissions are generated when using hydrogen. This fact becomes a passport to the implementation of the EU’s low-emission goals by 2050. Poland is not energy self-sufficient, additionally it still bases its energy mix on fossil fuels, which consequently raises concerns about meeting the EU guidelines. Therefore, the aim of the study is, inter alia, showing the prospects for the implementation of the so-called hydrogen valleys and sustainable smart cities, as alternatives to, for example, EU guidelines, dependence of supplies on the Russian monopoly, inefficiency and inactivity of the energy sector in the long term. For the purposes of this analysis, a hypothesis has been formulated, which assumes that the use of hydrogen in the economy will significantly improve Poland’s energy security in the long term. The following research question was asked: Will Poland use hydrogen as a solution to meet the EU requirements for a zero-emission economy?
Key words: EU, Poland, management, hydrogen valleys, Smart City, clusters, competitiveness, low-emission