Jānis Bērziņš | National Defence Academy of Latvia and BA School of Business and Finance, Rīga, Latvia
„Bezpieczeństwo. Teoria i Praktyka”, 3/2022, s. 223-235
Abstract: Russia has been employing old methods of warfare in innovative ways with the help of new technologies. At the same time, it has been looking to exploit non-military means to achieve political objectives. Among these are psychological, information, and influence operations, including financing pseudo-NGOs for achieving political goals, disinformation campaigns, and strong military posturing near the Baltic Countries’ borders. The Russian strategy for the Baltic States is multi-layered and chiefly determined by Russia considering them part of the West. As a result, since the threat is multi-layered and presents a comprehensive challenge, Latvia developed a comprehensive defence strategy. This article analysis the evolution of Latvia’s security and defence strategy towards a system that may be characterized as comprehensive defence. Its main features include several initiatives where society’s role is fundamental. The results are already noticeable. These actions have been focussing on both enlarging enlistment in the National Guard, but also in increasing the society’s awareness and resilience in case of military or non-military crisis.
Key words: comprehensive defence, Latvia, hybrid warfare, Russia, Latvian National Armed Forces, National Guard